Pan

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Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:11 pm

...the following posts are all cobbled together from the net, mostly from Wiki:

Pan (Gk. from paein "to pasture")
Gk. religion & mythology — the "agent", "guardian" or "attendant" of the Great Goddess (Cybele).


Z22.4 PAN
Museum Collection: Antakya Museum, Antakya, Turkey
Catalogue Number: Antakya 873
Type: Mosaic
Context: From Daphne near Antioch
Date: C2nd - C3rd AD
Period: Imperial Roman
SUMMARY
Detail of Pan with a wine jug from a mosaic depicting the procession of the god Dionysos.


In his earliest appearance in literature, Pindar's Pythian Ode iii. 78, [4] Pan appears as the "agent", "guardian" or "attendant" of the Great Goddess (Cybele).

Cybele


Statuette of Cybele on a cart drawn by lions, Imperial, second half of 2nd century a.d.
Roman
Bronze
54 3/4 in. (L. 139.1 cm)
Source: Statuette of Cybele on a cart drawn by lions [Roman] (97.22.24) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
The cult of the Anatolian Mother Goddess Cybele was introduced into Rome during the Second Punic War in the late 3rd century B.C. and remained popular until early Christian times. The goddess is shown with her usual attributes, a patera (libation bowl) in her right hand and a large tympanon (drum) in her left. But instead of flanking her throne as they normally do, here the two oversized lions pull a chariot. This elaborate group comes from a fountain, in which spouts projected from the open mouths of the lions. The original cart, harness, and throne no longer survive; the rear left wheel is a nineteenth-century restoration.


(Phrygian Mountain Mother, known to Gks. & Romans as Cybele)
...embodies the fertile Earth
...a goddess of caverns, mountains, walls, fortresses, nature, wild animals (esp. lions and bees)
...known among the Greeks as Μήτηρ (Mētēr "Mother") or Μήτηρ Ὀρεία ("Mountain-Mother"), or, with a particular Anatolian sacred mountain in mind, Idaea, inasmuch as she was supposed to have been born on Mount Ida in Anatolia, or equally Dindymene or Sipylene, with her sacred mountains Mount Dindymon (in Mysia and variously located) or Mount Sipylus in mind.
...In Roman mythology, her equivalent was Magna Mater or "Great Mother".


Last edited by blue moon on Tue Jul 26, 2011 10:35 pm; edited 3 times in total

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:13 pm

Pan
...companion of nymphs,
...god of shepherds, flocks, mountain wilds, hunting, rustic music
...hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat (in the same manner as a faun or satyr)
...recognized as the god of fields, groves, and wooded glens; because of this, Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring.
...accounts of Pan's genealogy are so varied that it must lie buried deep in mythic time.
...Like other nature spirits, Pan appears to be older than the Olympians, if it is true that he gave Artemis her hunting dogs and taught the secret of prophecy to Apollo.

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:15 pm

Home in rustic Arcadia

...The worship of Pan began in Arcadia

Arcadia:
...always the principal seat of his worship.
...a district of mountain people whom other Greeks disdained.
...Arcadian hunters used to scourge the statue of the god if they had been disappointed in the chase (Theocritus. vii. 107).

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:16 pm

Panic



"Panic" comes from Greek panikon, "pertaining to Pan." Pan is the god of woods and fields who was the source of mysterious sounds that caused contagious, groundless fear in herds and crowds, or in people in lonely spots.

Pan inspired sudden fear in lonely places, Panic (panikon deima).

Following the Titans' assault on Olympus, Pan claimed credit for the victory of the gods because he had inspired disorder and fear in the attackers resulting in the word 'panic' to describe these emotions.

Of course, Pan was later known for his music, capable of arousing inspiration, sexuality, or panic, depending on his intentions.

In the Battle of Marathon (490 BC to 510 BC), it is said that Pan favored the Athenians and so inspired panic in the hearts of their enemies, the Persians.[img]http://www.medusaheadpiece.org/wp-content/uploads/Greek%


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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:18 pm

Mythology

Pan aided his foster-brother in the battle with the Titans by blowing his conch-horn and scattering them in terror. According to some traditions, Aegipan was the son of Pan, rather than his father.

One of the famous myths of Pan involves the origin of his eponymous pan flute. Syrinx was a lovely water-nymph of Arcadia, daughter of Landon, the river-god. As she was returning from the hunt one day, Pan met her. To escape from his importunities, the fair nymph ran away and didn't stop to hear his compliments. He pursued from Mount Lycaeum until she came to her sisters who immediately changed her into a reed. When the air blew through the reeds, it produced a plaintive melody. The god, still infatuated, took some of the reeds, because he could not identify which reed she became, and cut seven pieces (or according to some versions, nine), joined them side by side in gradually decreasing lengths, and formed the musical instrument bearing the name of his beloved Syrinx. Henceforth Pan was seldom seen without it.

Echo was a nymph who was a great singer and dancer and scorned the love of any man. This angered Pan, a lecherous god, and he instructed his followers to kill her. Echo was torn to pieces and spread all over earth. The goddess of the earth, Gaia, received the pieces of Echo, whose voice remains repeating the last words of others.

In some versions, Echo and Pan first had one child: Iambe.

Pan also loved a nymph named Pitys, who was turned into a pine tree to escape him.

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:19 pm

Erotic aspects

Pan is famous for his sexual powers, and is often depicted with an erect phallus.



He was believed by the Greeks to have plied his charms primarily on maidens and shepherds. Though he failed with Syrinx and Pitys, Pan didn't fail with the Maenads—he had every one of them, in one orgiastic riot or another. To effect this, Pan was sometimes multiplied into a whole tribe of Panes.

Pan's greatest conquest was that of the moon goddess Selene. He accomplished this by wrapping himself in a sheepskin to hide his hairy black goat form, and drew her down from the sky into the forest where he seduced her.


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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:21 pm

Pan and music


Pan teaching his eromenos, the shepherd Daphnis, to play the pipes, 2nd century AD Roman copy of Greek original ca. 100 BC, found in Pompeii

Once Pan had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo, and to challenge Apollo, the god of the lyre, to a trial of skill. Tmolus, the mountain-god, was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes, and with his rustic melody gave great satisfaction to himself and his faithful follower, Midas, who happened to be present. Then Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but Midas agreed with the judgement. He dissented, and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo would not suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer, and turned Midas' ears into those of a donkey.

In another version of the myth the first round of the contest was a tie so they were forced to go to a second round. In this round, Apollo demanded that they play standing on their heads. Apollo, playing on the lyre, was unaffected, however Pan's pipe couldn't be played while upsidedown, so Apollo won the contest.



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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:23 pm

SATYRS

...half-man half-beast nature spirits that haunted the woods and mountains and were the companions of Pan and Dionysus.

These followers of the god of the vine, are great lovers of festivals, revels, drinking, dancing, singing, and generally wild kinds of behavior.

Satyrs have a deserved reputation for assaulting nymphs, and stealing cattle. Satyrs bear on their foreheads small bony protuberances that in a goat would grow into horns. They are often depicted as intoxicated and sexually aroused.

Though Roman satire is sometimes thoughtlessly linked to the Greek satyr plays, satire's only connection to the satyric drama is through the subversive nature of the satyrs themselves, as forces in opposition to urbanity, decorum, and civilization itself.

While satyrs have been called a worthless race, satyrs teach us it is foolish to underestimate the overwhelming power that the sexual instinct possesses to create complex delusions and illusions.

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:33 pm

Bacchic dance:



Plato tells us there was a specific dance done by the characters in a Dionysian ritual: Nymphs, Pans, Silenoi, and Satyrs   The Satyr and Silenoi dance had several steps and aspects. Like the Mænads, they would bend deeply forward and backward, but they would also leap --- crouching on one leg, then launching themselves to fall upon the other one. They capered with the Mænads, and would sway their hips accompanied by angular arm movements. Beyond the 'joined hand' gesture and the animal imitations, we do not know specifically what these gestures were. It is likely that the dance steps, like orisha and voudon dances, had strong symbolic aspects but this is lost to us.

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:34 pm

Pan

...god of woods and fields, of flocks and shepherds, Pan is known as "The Pasturer," "the Feeder of Flocks." God of herds, fertility and male sexuality,  Pan amuses himself with the chase or in leading the dances of the nymphs.

Pan has the horns and legs of a goat and plays a syrinx, a pipe with seven reeds. An ancient god, he has no moral or social aspect whatsoever, and is simply the embodiment of pure, basic instinct.

Some said that Pan taught Apollo the art of prophecy.

Pan especially loves mountains and wild country.

Pan has a dark aspect as well, causing men and animals to go suddenly mad with terror in distant, lonely places or because your superstitious fears have got the best of you. His name is therefore the root word of "panic."

Pan was fond of music, and  known as the inventor of the syrinx, or shepherd's pipe, which he himself played in a such a masterly manner he once competed against Apollo himself.

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:38 pm

Pan and Syrinx.  



One day Pan saw the nymph Syrinx returning to her home. Immediately he started after her and she ran until she came to a river. Syrinx turned into a reed that lined the bank of the river so Pan could not recognize her. Pan grabbed a hand full of reeds in hopes that he could capture Syrinx, but he was unable to locate her. Pan sat down beside the river and started tying the reeds together that he had gathered and soon he came up with a contraption that is known today as the "Pipes of Pan."



...from English poet John Keats (1795-1821):

So did he feel who pulled the bough aside,
That we might look into a forest wide,
Telling us how fair trembling Syrinx fled
Arcadian Pan, with such a fearful dread.
Poor nymph- poor Pan- how he did weep to find
Nought but a lovely sighing of the wind
Along the reedy stream; a half-heard strain,
Full of sweet desolation, balmy pain.

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:54 pm

Selene

Selene the moon goddess is known for her countless love affairs including the shepherd Endymion.  Pan's seduction began with a gift of a  herd of white oxen. Pan accomplished the seduction of Selene by disguising his hairy black goatishness with white fleece. Selene consented to ride on his back, unaware of who he was, and Pan proceeded to ravish her.


Titans

Pan was present at the great battle between the Olympian gods and the Titans and claimed that it has his yelling that caused the Titans to flee.

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:55 pm

Pan and Echo.

The nymph ran from him. Pan instilled "panic" in local shepherds and they killed her, destroying her body. Only her voice remains.


Z22.1 PAN & PITYS
Museum Collection: Antakya Museum, Antakya, Turkey
CaType: Mosaic
Period: Imperial Roman
SUMMARY
The goat-legged god Pan sneaks up on a sleeping Nymph, probably either Ekho or Pitys. Above her flits a winged Eros (love god).


Pan and Pitys

In Greek mythology— or more particularly in Ancient Greek poetry— Pitys ("pine") was an Oread nymph who was pursued by Pan. According to a passage in Nonnus' Dionysiaca she was changed into a pine tree by the gods in order to escape him.



Pan and Pitys (from a Greek stamp)


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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:55 pm

Pan

He was the god of green fields and the guardian of the shepherds associated with the worship of Dionysus, and as a mountain deity with that of Cybele.

He is at home in any wild place but, his favorite is Arcady, where he was born.

He was fond of sportive dances, singing with woodland nymphs and playing on pipes.

He is always in pursuit of a nymph, but, is rarely successful.

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 9:59 pm


Sylvanus and Faunus are Pan's Latin counterparts


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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 10:10 pm

Marsyas

Marsyas was a satyr who challenged Apollo to a contest of music.



The victor could treat the defeated party in any manner he wanted. Since the contest was judged by the Muses, Marsyas naturally lost and was flayed alive in a cave near Calaenae in Phrygia for his hubris to challenge a god. His blood turned into the river Marsyas.

There are several versions of the contest; according to some Marsyas was departing as victor when Apollo, turning his lyre upside down, played the same tune. This was something that Marsyas could not do with his flute.

According to another version Marsyas was defeated when Apollo added his voice to the sound of the lyre. Marsyas protested, arguing that the skill with the instrument was to be compared, and not the voice. However, Apollo replied that when Marsyas blew into the pipes, he was doing almost the same thing as himself. The Muses found Apollo's claim to be the most just, leading to his victory.

Midas let it be known that he though Marsyas was the better musician. Apollo punished Midas making his ears grow like those of a donkey.



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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 10:22 pm

Midas

Midas was the king of Pessinus, capital of Phrygia, a region in Asia Minor. He was the adopted son of Gordias and Cybele and was well known for his pristine rose garden and love of the pleasures of life.
The most famous myth about King Midas is when he received the golden touch from Dionysus, god of the life force. Dionysus was associated with intoxication and was followed by a group of satyrs -- half human, half goat individuals with a lust for wine and sexual pleasures. The leader of the satyrs, entrusted with Dionysus' education, was Silenus. One day, completely in character for a satyr, Silenus became intoxicated and passed out in Midas' rose garden. The peasants found him and brought him before their king. Luckily, Midas recognized Silenus and treated him well for five days and nights. During this time, Silenus entertained Midas and his court with fantastic tales.

Dionysus came to Midas and was glad to be reunited with Silenus his surrogate father. He decided to reward Midas for his hospitality and granted him one wish. Midas wished that everything he touched be turned to gold. Dionysus warned him about the dangers of such a wish, but Midas was too distracted with the prospect of being surrounded by gold to listen. Dionysus gave him the gift. Initially, King Midas was thrilled with his new gift and turned everything he could to gold, including his beloved roses. His attitude changed, however, when he was unable to eat or drink since his food and wine were also changed to unappetizing gold. He even accidentally killed his daughter when he touched her, and this truly made him realize the depth of his mistake. Desperate, Midas pleaded to Dionysus for help. Dionysus instructed Midas to bathe in the headwaters of the Pactolus River, and the wish would be washed away. Midas went to the river, and as soon as he touched the water, the river carried away the golden touch. The gold settled in the sands of the Pactolus River and was carried downstream to Lydia, one of the richest kingdoms in the ancient world and the source of the earliest coinage.

This myth is ethiological since it explains why the Pactolus River is rich with gold and how Lydia came to be one of the richest kingdoms. It is also carries a common motif in Greek folklore � the "short-sighted wish". Midas let his greed blind him to the future. Most notably, this myth has aspects characteristic of myths of Dionysus. Child sacrifice is a frequent theme in Dionysian myths. Frequently, Dionysus would punish mortals indirectly by having them kill their own children. King Midas kills his daughter by turning her to gold. He pays for his greed.

After the death of his daughter, Midas hated wealth and splendor and became a worshiper of Pan, god of woodlands. In another myth, Pan challenged Apollo, god of the music, to a test of skill at music. Tmolus, god of the mountain, was the judge at the contest and ruled that Apollo was the victor. Midas, being a follower of Pan, questioned the ruling and this offended Apollo. As a punishment for Midas' lack of musical "taste", Apollo changed Midas' ears into donkey ears. Ashamed of his disfigurement, he hid his ears under a large hat with only his barber knowing about the deformity. It was so hard for the barber to keep the secret that he dug a hole, whispered the secret into the hole, then covered it with earth. From this spot grew reeds that whispered, "Midas has donkey ears!" every time the wind blew. Another version has the queen letting out the secret. In the end, Midas ran away from Phrygia never to be heard from again.


In the Nathaniel Hawthorne version of the Midas myth, Midas's daughter turns to a statue when he touches her. Illustration by Walter Crane for the 1893 edition.


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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Tue Jul 26, 2011 10:23 pm

...a still from Pan's Labyrinth...a great movie.


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Re: Pan

Post  eddie on Wed Jul 27, 2011 7:10 pm

From "The Piper the the Gates of Dawn", Chapter 7 of The Wind in the Willows:

Then suddenly the Mole felt a great Awe fall upon him, an awe that turned his muscles to water, bowed his head, and rooted his feet to the ground. It was no panic terror--indeed he felt wonderfully at peace and happy--but it was an awe that smote and held him and, without seeing, he knew it could only mean that some august Presence was very, very near. With difficulty he turned to look for his friend. and saw him at his side cowed, stricken, and trembling violently. And still there was utter silence in the populous bird-haunted branches around them; and still the light grew and grew.

Perhaps he would never have dared to raise his eyes, but that, though the piping was now hushed, the call and the summons seemed still dominant and imperious. He might not refuse, were Death himself waiting to strike him instantly, once he had looked with mortal eye on things rightly kept hidden. Trembling he obeyed, and raised his humble head; and then, in that utter clearness of the imminent dawn, while Nature, flushed with fulness of incredible colour, seemed to hold her breath for the event, he looked in the very eyes of the Friend and Helper; saw the backward sweep of the curved horns, gleaming in the growing daylight; saw the stern, hooked nose between the kindly eyes that were looking down on them humourously, while the bearded mouth broke into a half-smile at the corners; saw the rippling muscles on the arm that lay across the broad chest, the long supple hand still holding the pan-pipes only just fallen away from the parted lips; saw the splendid curves of the shaggy limbs disposed in majestic ease on the sward; saw, last of all, nestling between his very hooves, sleeping soundly in entire peace and contentment, the little, round, podgy, childish form of the baby otter. All this he saw, for one moment breathless and intense, vivid on the morning sky; and still, as he looked, he lived; and still, as he lived, he wondered.

********************************************************************************

Also referenced by Pink Floyd and Van Morrison et al.


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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Wed Jul 27, 2011 9:25 pm

"Piper At The Gates Of Dawn"
by Van Morrison

The coolness of the riverbank, and the whispering of the reeds
Daybreak is not so very far away

Enchanted and spellbound, in the silence they lingered
And rowed the boat as the light grew steadily strong
And the birds were silent, as they listened for the heavenly music
And the river played the song

The wind in the willows and the piper at the gates of dawn
The wind in the willows and the piper at the gates of dawn

The song dream happened and the cloven hoofed piper
Played in that holy ground where they felt the awe and wonder
And they all were unafraid of the great god Pan

And the wind in the willows and the piper at the gates of dawn
The wind in the willows and the piper at the gates of dawn

When the vision vanished they heard a choir of birds singing
In the heavenly silence between the trance and the reeds
And they stood upon the lawn and listened to the silence

Of the wind in the willows and the piper at the gates of dawn
The wind in the willows and the piper at the gates of dawn
The wind in the willows and the piper at the gates of dawn

It's the wind in the willows and the piper at the gates of dawn
The wind in the willows and the piper at the gates of dawn
The wind in the willows and the piper at the gates of dawn


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Re: Pan

Post  eddie on Thu Jul 28, 2011 7:18 pm


Brian Jones Presents the Pipes of Pan at Jajouka.

Wiki:

The album's music included songs meant for the village's "most important religious holiday festival, Aid el Kbir". The festival's ritual of dressing a young boy dressed as "Bou Jeloud, the Goat God" wearing the "skin of a freshly slaughtered goat", involved the child's running to "spread panic through the darkened village" as the musicians played with abandon. Gysin connected the ritual, performed to protect the village's health in the coming year, to the fertility festival of Lupercalia and the "ancient Roman rites of Pan"; he referred to the Bou Jeloud dancer as "Pan" and "the Father of Skins". This name stuck, leading to the reference to Pan in the album's title.

********************************************************************************

A very stoned Brian is said to have completely freaked when the villagers brought out a white goat to slaughter for the festival feast. "That's me!" he jibbered. And lo! In a way, it WAS.

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Thu Jul 28, 2011 8:19 pm

eddie wrote:A very stoned Brian is said to have completely freaked when the villagers brought out a white goat to slaughter for the festival feast. "That's me!" he jibbered. And lo! In a way, it WAS.
...because he died a month after returning from Morocco?

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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Thu Jul 28, 2011 8:48 pm

Tumnus from Narnia

Tumnus is a fictional character in C. S. Lewis' series The Chronicles of Narnia. He is featured prominently in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and also appears in The Horse and His Boy and The Last Battle.

He is close friends with Lucy Pevensie and is the first person she meets in Narnia, as well as the first Narnian to be introduced in the series. Lewis said that the first Narnia story, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, all came to him from a single picture he had in his head of a faun carrying an umbrella and parcels through a snowy wood. In that way, Tumnus was the initial inspiration for the entire Narnia series.[citation needed]

Lewis describes Tumnus as having reddish skin, curly hair, brown eyes, a short pointed beard, horns on his forehead, cloven hooves, goat legs with glossy black hair, a "strange but pleasant little face," a long tail, and being, "only a little taller than Lucy herself."

He first appears in the story when Lucy arrives in Narnia at the lamp-post. He introduces himself to Lucy and she tells him who she is, before inviting her back to his cave for dinner. During dinner, they have a conversation about Narnia before Tumnus starts playing his flute and Lucy falls asleep. When Lucy wakes up she realizes that he is crying. He confesses that he is in the pay of the White Witch (who rules Narnia and has made it always winter but never Christmas) who has ordered him to hand over any Sons of Adam or Daughters of Eve - humans - that he sees in Narnia. Mr Tumnus soon realises that he can't give Lucy up to the Witch, and so he guides her back to the lamp-post to see that she returns safely to her own world.


James McAvoy as Tumnus in the 2005 film The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe


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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Thu Jul 28, 2011 8:52 pm

Pan depicted on the cover of The Wind in the Willows.


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Re: Pan

Post  Guest on Thu Jul 28, 2011 8:57 pm

All of the Pans

Pan could be multiplied into a swarm of Pans, and even be given individual names, as in Nonnus' Dionysiaca, where the god Pan had twelve sons that helped Dionysus in his war against the Indians. Their names were Kelaineus, Argennon, Aigikoros, Eugeneios, Omester, Daphoineus, Phobos, Philamnos, Xanthos, Glaukos, Argos, and Phorbas.

Two other Pans were Agreus and Nomios. Both were the sons of Hermes, Argeus' mother being the nymph Sose, a prophetess: he inherited his mother's gift of prophecy, and was also a skilled hunter. Nomios' mother was Penelope (not the same as the wife of Odysseus). He was an excellent shepherd, seducer of nymphs, and musician upon the shepherd's pipes. Most of the mythological stories about Pan are actually about Nomios, not the god Pan. Although, Agreus and Nomios could have been two different aspects of the prime Pan, reflecting his dual nature as both a wise prophet and a lustful beast.

Not all of Pan's efforts to attract the fairer sex ended in failure. The Maenads, female worshippers of Dionysus, god of wine found Pan very attractive, and he replicated himself into a tribe of Panes in order to satisfy himself with each and every Maenad.


Pan and Maenad


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