Bees

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Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 3:07 am


Morphology of a female honey bee.




^^ Bees collecting pollen from flowers.


European honey bee carrying pollen back to have.

Wiki:

Honey bees (or honeybees) are a subset of bees in the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests out of wax. Honey bees are the only extant members of the tribe Apini, all in the genus Apis. Currently, there are only seven recognised species of honey bee with a total of 44 subspecies,[1] though historically, anywhere from six to eleven species have been recognised. Honey bees represent only a small fraction of the approximately 20,000 known species of bees. Some other types of related bees produce and store honey, but only members of the genus Apis are true honey bees.


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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 3:11 am

THE LAKE ISLE OF INNISFREE
By William Butler Yeats

I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,
And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made;
Nine bean rows will I have there, a hive for the honeybee,
And live alone in the bee-loud glade.

And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,
Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;
There midnight's all a-glimmer, and noon a purple glow,
And evening full of the linnet's wings.

I will arise and go now, for always night and day
I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;
While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements gray,
I hear it in the deep heart's core.

1892


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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 3:23 am

Life cycle



A queen bee: a coloured dot, in this case yellow, is added to assist the beekeeper in identifying the queen.


As in a few other types of eusocial bees, a colony generally contains one queen bee, a fertile female; seasonally up to a few thousand drone bees or fertile males; and a large seasonally variable population of sterile female worker bees. Details vary among the different species of honey bees, but common features include:



Eggs and larvae on honeycomb.

1. Eggs are laid singly in a cell in a wax honeycomb, produced and shaped by the worker bees. Using her spermatheca, the queen actually can choose to fertilize the egg she is laying, usually depending on what cell she is laying in. Drones develop from unfertilised eggs and are haploid, while females (queens and worker bees) develop from fertilised eggs and are diploid. Larvae are initially fed with royal jelly produced by worker bees, later switching to honey and pollen. The exception is a larva fed solely on royal jelly, which will develop into a queen bee. The larva undergoes several moltings before spinning a cocoon within the cell, and pupating.


Pupae drones.

2. Young worker bees clean the hive and feed the larvae. When their royal jelly producing glands begin to atrophy, they begin building comb cells. They progress to other within-colony tasks as they become older, such as receiving nectar and pollen from foragers, and guarding the hive. Later still, a worker takes her first orientation flights and finally leaves the hive and typically spends the remainder of her life as a forager.


Emergence of a Black Bee (Apis mellifera Mellifera).

3. Worker bees cooperate to find food and use a pattern of "dancing" (known as the bee dance or waggle dance) to communicate information regarding resources with each other; this dance varies from species to species, but all living species of Apis exhibit some form of the behavior. If the resources are very close to the hive, they may also exhibit a less specific dance commonly known as the "Round Dance".


Foragers laden with pollen alight on the hive landing board.

4. Honey bees also perform tremble dances which recruit receiver bees to collect nectar from returning foragers.

5. Virgin queens go on mating flights away from their home colony, and mate with multiple drones before returning. The drones die in the act of mating.


A honey bee sawrm.

6. Colonies are established not by solitary queens, as in most bees, but by groups known as "swarms", which consist of a mated queen and a large contingent of worker bees. This group moves en masse to a nest site that has been scouted by worker bees beforehand. Once they arrive, they immediately construct a new wax comb and begin to raise new worker brood. This type of nest founding is not seen in any other living bee genus, though there are several groups of Vespid wasps which also found new nests via swarming (sometimes including multiple queens). Also, stingless bees will start new nests with large numbers of worker bees, but the nest is constructed before a queen is escorted to the site, and this worker force is not a true "swarm".


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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 3:40 am

The Bee featured on Napoleon's coat of arms, as one of the symbols of Empire:



The Bee

Symbol of immortality and resurrection, the bee was chosen so as to link the new dynasty to the very origins of France. Golden bees (in fact, cicadas) were discovered in 1653 in Tournai in the tomb of Childeric I, founder in 457 of the Merovingian dynasty and father of Clovis. They were considered as the oldest emblem of the sovereigns of France.



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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 3:50 am

Bee Keeping is a very ancient science:


Honey seeker depicted on 8000 year old cave painting near Valencia, Spain.


Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century).


Diagram of modern bee hive.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:10 am


Sherlock Holmes' "Practical Handbook of Bee Culture, with some Observation upon the Segregation of the Queen".

Sherlock Holmes was a beekeeper. According to Arthur Conan Doyle, he retired to Sussex in the early years of the Twentieth Century and divided his time “between philosophy and agriculture.” Later, details were provided when his hitherto unknown work on beekeeping played a role in breaking a spy ring on the very eve of the Great War:

“But you had retired, Holmes [says Dr Watson]. We heard of you as living the life of a hermit among your bees and your books in a small farm upon the South Downs.”

“Exactly, Watson. Here is the fruit of my leisured ease, the magnum opus of my latter years.” He picked up the volume from the table and read out the whole title, “‘Practical Handbook of Bee Culture, with some Observations upon the Segregation of the Queen.’ Alone I did it. Behold the fruit of pensive nights and laborious days, when I watched the little working gangs as once I watched the criminal world of London.”

(from “His Last Bow”)

However, Holmes’ Handbook then disappeared for decades, until The Language of Bees, volume nine of the Mary Russell memoirs, offered enticing glimpses of its contents.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:27 am


Beekeepers often wear protective clothing to protect themselves from stings.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:33 am


Bee smoker with heat shield and hook.

Wiki:

Most beekeepers use a "smoker" — a device designed to generate smoke from the incomplete combustion of various fuels. Smoke calms bees; it initiates a feeding response in anticipation of possible hive abandonment due to fire. Smoke also masks alarm pheromones released by guard bees or when bees are squashed in an inspection. The ensuing confusion creates an opportunity for the beekeeper to open the hive and work without triggering a defensive reaction. In addition, when a bee consumes honey the bee's abdomen distends, supposedly making it difficult to make the necessary flexes to sting, though this has not been tested scientifically.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:36 am


A frame.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:38 am


A beekeeper removing frames from the hive.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:40 am


Smoking the hive.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:43 am


Using a blower to remove bees from honey super prior to removal to the honey house.


Last edited by eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:46 am; edited 1 time in total

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:45 am


Opening the cells: Uncapping.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:48 am


An Uncapping fork.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:50 am


Uncapping the cells by hand using an uncapping knife.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:52 am


Extracting the honey.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:54 am


Filtering the honey.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 4:56 am


Pouring in pots (after maturation).

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 5:02 am


A variety of honey flavors and container sizes and styles from the 2008 Texas State Fair.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 5:08 am

HONEY IN MEDICINE

Historically, honey has been used by humans to treat a variety of ailments through topical application, but only recently have the antiseptic and antibacterial properties of honey been chemically explained.

In Ayurveda, a 4000-year-old medicine originating from India, honey is considered to positively affect all three primitive material imbalances of the body. "Vaatalam guru sheetam cha raktapittakaphapaham| Sandhatru cchedanam ruksham kashayam madhuram madhu|| "It has sweetness with added astringent as end taste. It is heavy, dry and cold. Its effect on doshas (imbalances) is that it aggravates vata (air / moving forces), scrapes kapha (mucus / holding forces) and normalizes pitta (catabolic fire) and rakta (blood). It promotes the healing process." Some wound gels which contain antibacterial raw honey and have regulatory approval are now available to help treat drug-resistant strains of bacteria (MRSA). One New Zealand researcher says a particular type of honey (Manuka honey) may be useful in treating MRSA infections.) As an antimicrobial agent honey may have the potential for treating a variety of ailments. Antibacterial properties of honey are the result of the low water activity causing osmosis, hydrogen peroxide effect, high acidity, and the antibacterial activity of methylglyoxal.

Honey appears to be effective in killing drug-resistant biofilms which are implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 5:13 am

HONEY IN RELIGION

Madhu abhisheka. The Vedas and other ancient literature mention the use of honey as a great medicinal and health food.

In Jewish tradition, honey is a symbol for the new year, Rosh Hashanah. At the traditional meal for that holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten to bring a sweet new year. Some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast. In some congregations, small straws of honey are given out to usher in the new year.

The Hebrew Bible contains many references to honey. In the Book of Judges, Samson found a swarm of bees and honey in the carcass of a lion (14:Cool. The Book of Exodus famously describes the Promised Land as a "land flowing with milk and honey" (33:3). However, the claim has been advanced that the original Hebrew (devash) actually refers to the sweet syrup produced from the juice of dates. Pure honey is considered kosher even though it is produced by a flying insect, a nonkosher creature; other products of nonkosher animals are not kosher.

In Buddhism, honey plays an important role in the festival of Madhu Purnima, celebrated in India and Bangladesh. The day commemorates Buddha's making peace among his disciples by retreating into the wilderness. The legend has it that while he was there, a monkey brought him honey to eat. On Madhu Purnima, Buddhists remember this act by giving honey to monks. The monkey's gift is frequently depicted in Buddhist art.

In the Christian New Testament, Matthew 3:4, John the Baptist is said to have lived for a long period of time in the wilderness on a diet consisting of locusts and wild honey.

In Islam, there is an entire Surah in the Qur'an called al-Nahl (the Honey Bee). According to hadith, Prophet Muhammad strongly recommended honey for healing purposes. Qur'an promotes honey as a nutritious and healthy food. Below is the English translation of those specific verses.

And your Lord inspired the bees, saying: "Take you habitations in the mountains and in the trees and in what they erect. Then, eat of all fruits, and follow the ways of your Lord made easy (for you)." There comes forth from their bellies, a drink of varying colour wherein is healing for men. Verily, in this is indeed a sign for people who think.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 5:15 am

Unexpected side-effects of a diet of honey:


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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 5:18 am

NUTRITION

Honey is a mixture of sugars and other compounds. With respect to carbohydrates, honey is mainly fructose (about 38.5%) and glucose (about 31.0%), making it similar to the synthetically produced inverted sugar syrup, which is approximately 48% fructose, 47% glucose, and 5% sucrose. Honey's remaining carbohydrates include maltose, sucrose, and other complex carbohydrates. As with all nutritive sweeteners, honey is mostly sugars and contains only trace amounts of vitamins or minerals. Honey also contains tiny amounts of several compounds thought to function as antioxidants, including chrysin, pinobanksin, vitamin C, catalase, and pinocembrin. The specific composition of any batch of honey depends on the flowers available to the bees that produced the honey.

Typical honey analysis.

Fructose: 38.2%
Glucose: 31.3%
Sucrose: 1.3%
Maltose: 7.1%
Water: 17.2%
Higher sugars: 1.5%
Ash: 0.2%
Other/undetermined: 3.2%
Its glycemic index ranges from 31 to 78, depending on the variety.

Honey has a density of about 1.36 kilograms per litre (36% denser than water).

Isotope ratio mass spectrometry can be used to detect addition of corn syrup or sugar cane sugars by the carbon isotopic signature. Addition of sugars originating from corn or sugar cane (C4 plants, unlike the plants used by bees, which are predominantly C3 plants) skews the isotopic ratio of sugars present in honey, but does not influence the isotopic ratio of proteins; in an unadulterated honey, the carbon isotopic ratios of sugars and proteins should match. As low as 7% level of addition can be detected.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Sun Jun 19, 2011 5:20 am

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcFKmMdbCss
I'm a King Bee- The Rolling Stones.

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Re: Bees

Post  eddie on Mon Jun 20, 2011 3:45 pm


The sport of Bee-bearding.

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