# Quantum Vacuum Flux, The Alcubierre Drive, and Beyond ...

## Quantum Vacuum Flux, The Alcubierre Drive, and Beyond ...

Zero Point Energy (ZPE), or vacuum fluctuation energy are terms used to describe the random electromagnetic oscillations that are left in a vacuum after all other energy has been removed. If you remove all the energy from a space, take out all the matter, all the heat, all the light... everything -- you will find that there is still some energy left. One way to explain this is from the uncertainty principle from quantum physics that implies that it is impossible to have an absolutely zero energy condition.

For light waves in space, the same condition holds. For every possible color of light, that includes the ones we can’t see, there is a non-zero amount of that light. Add up the energy for all those different frequencies of light and the amount of energy in a given space is enormous, even mind boggling, ranging from 10^36 to 10^70 Joules/m3.

In simplistic terms it has been said that there is enough energy in the volume the size of a coffee cup to boil away Earth’s oceans. - that’s one strong cup of coffee! For a while a lot of physics thought that concept was too hard to swallow. This vacuum energy is more widely accepted today.

First predicted in 1948, the vacuum energy has been linked to a number of experimental observations. Examples include the

The most straight-forward evidence for vacuum energy is the

It is doubtful that this can be tapped, and if it could be tapped, it is unknown what the secondary consequences would be. Remember that this is our lowest energy point. To get energy out, you presumably need to be at a lower energy state. Theoretical methods have been suggested to take advantage of the

Imagine, for example, if you lived on a large plateau, so large that you didn't know you were 1000 ft up. From your point of view, your ground is at zero height. As long as you're not near the edge of your 1000 ft plateau, you won't fall off, and you will never know that your zero is really 1000. It's kind of the same way with this vacuum energy. It is essentially our zero reference point.

The vacuum fluctuations have also been theorized by Haisch, Rueda, and

For light waves in space, the same condition holds. For every possible color of light, that includes the ones we can’t see, there is a non-zero amount of that light. Add up the energy for all those different frequencies of light and the amount of energy in a given space is enormous, even mind boggling, ranging from 10^36 to 10^70 Joules/m3.

In simplistic terms it has been said that there is enough energy in the volume the size of a coffee cup to boil away Earth’s oceans. - that’s one strong cup of coffee! For a while a lot of physics thought that concept was too hard to swallow. This vacuum energy is more widely accepted today.

*What evidence shows that it exists?*First predicted in 1948, the vacuum energy has been linked to a number of experimental observations. Examples include the

**Casimir effect**, Van der Waal forces, the Lamb-Retherford Shift, explanations of the Planck blackbody radiation spectrum, the stability of the ground state of the hydrogen atom from radiative collapse, and the effect of cavities to inhibit or enhance the spontaneous emission from excited atoms.The most straight-forward evidence for vacuum energy is the

**Casimir effect**. Get two metal plates close enough together and this vacuum energy will push them together. This is because the plates block out the light waves that are too big to fit between the plates. Eventually you have more waves bouncing on the outside than from the inside, the plates will get pushed together from this difference in light pressure. This effect has been experimentally demonstrated.*Can we tap into this energy?*It is doubtful that this can be tapped, and if it could be tapped, it is unknown what the secondary consequences would be. Remember that this is our lowest energy point. To get energy out, you presumably need to be at a lower energy state. Theoretical methods have been suggested to take advantage of the

**Casimir**effect to extract energy (let the plates collapse and do work in the process) since the region inside the**Casimir**cavity can be interpreted as being at a lower energy state. Such concepts are only at the point of theoretical exercises at this point.*With such large amount of energy, why is it so hard to notice?*Imagine, for example, if you lived on a large plateau, so large that you didn't know you were 1000 ft up. From your point of view, your ground is at zero height. As long as you're not near the edge of your 1000 ft plateau, you won't fall off, and you will never know that your zero is really 1000. It's kind of the same way with this vacuum energy. It is essentially our zero reference point.

*What about propulsion implications?*The vacuum fluctuations have also been theorized by Haisch, Rueda, and

**Puthoff**to cause gravity and inertia. Those particular gravity theories are still up for debate. Even if the theories are correct, in their present form they do not provide a means to use electromagnetic means to induce propulsive forces. It has also been suggested by Millis that any asymmetric interactions withLast edited by Yakima Canutt on Fri Jun 13, 2014 6:27 am; edited 1 time in total

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## Re: Quantum Vacuum Flux, The Alcubierre Drive, and Beyond ...

^ lol

I am affected by the uncertainty principle too... when I go to the doctor I change, I look at my inside and find much less substance to report so he never really knows what's going on.

I am affected by the uncertainty principle too... when I go to the doctor I change, I look at my inside and find much less substance to report so he never really knows what's going on.

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## Re: Quantum Vacuum Flux, The Alcubierre Drive, and Beyond ...

it's hard to explain the universe to a lay person ... to understand string theory, don't think of them as strings, think of them as an oscillating spiral of Planck rhombuses that form an infinite vector point when energy subsumes mass with zero as an inertial limit of intermittent matter, kind of like a BLT sandwich

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## Re: Quantum Vacuum Flux, The Alcubierre Drive, and Beyond ...

As legend has it, back in the pre-production days of STAR TREK: THE NEXT GENERATION, Gene Rodenberry decided that a speed limit should be in place for warp travel. If the Enterprise-D traveled too fast, the galaxy would become a very very small place, and have limited plot potential for the writing staff. To fulfill this request, Michael Okuda, the series art director, created a warp speed chart that could easily be used by the writers in the course of their episodic endeavors. Warp-10 had become the unattainable maximum speed limit for the galaxy (unless you have alien technology), and was thus dubbed "TRANS WARP" because it's assumed that at Warp-10, you were at all places in the universe simultaneously.

Unfortunately this new system for calculating warp speeds confused fans of the original STAR TREK series. According to Gene Rodenberry, the "NEW" maximum speed limit for warp travel was set at Warp-10. Yet.....in many of the TOS episodes, the Enterprise was often noted at traveling at speeds well over Warp-14, usually caused by alien intervention.

For many years, ardent fans of TOS had often used various non-canonical methods of calculating just how fast warp speed was. The most popular method was the warp-cubed (X^3) calculation. Using this system of calculation, Warp-2 would be 8 times the speed of light (2 x 2 x 2 = 8 ), Warp-3 would be 27 times the speed of light, and so on. This concept fit so well into what had been described during the production of TOS, that the production staff at Paramount saw fit to make this calculation canon by printing it in page 555 in the Star Trek Encyclopedia.

Thus, it is assumed by Paramount Studios and Star Trek fans alike that sometime in the era between the last TOS Movie and the first episode of TNG Federation physicists had made vital discoveries in quantum mechanics that necessitated a recalculation to the current warp factors seen in every series from TNG to DS9, and Voyager.

1. 1 - 1

2. 8 - 10

3. 27 - 39

4. 64 - 102

5. 125 - 215

6. 216 - 392

7. 343 - 656

8. 512 - 1,024

9. 729 - 1,516

Unfortunately this new system for calculating warp speeds confused fans of the original STAR TREK series. According to Gene Rodenberry, the "NEW" maximum speed limit for warp travel was set at Warp-10. Yet.....in many of the TOS episodes, the Enterprise was often noted at traveling at speeds well over Warp-14, usually caused by alien intervention.

For many years, ardent fans of TOS had often used various non-canonical methods of calculating just how fast warp speed was. The most popular method was the warp-cubed (X^3) calculation. Using this system of calculation, Warp-2 would be 8 times the speed of light (2 x 2 x 2 = 8 ), Warp-3 would be 27 times the speed of light, and so on. This concept fit so well into what had been described during the production of TOS, that the production staff at Paramount saw fit to make this calculation canon by printing it in page 555 in the Star Trek Encyclopedia.

Thus, it is assumed by Paramount Studios and Star Trek fans alike that sometime in the era between the last TOS Movie and the first episode of TNG Federation physicists had made vital discoveries in quantum mechanics that necessitated a recalculation to the current warp factors seen in every series from TNG to DS9, and Voyager.

**Warp Factor 1 to 9**&*Number Of Times The Speed Of Light*on TOS vs TNG era1. 1 - 1

2. 8 - 10

3. 27 - 39

4. 64 - 102

5. 125 - 215

6. 216 - 392

7. 343 - 656

8. 512 - 1,024

9. 729 - 1,516

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## Re: Quantum Vacuum Flux, The Alcubierre Drive, and Beyond ...

Since, 2012, NASA has been working on building super spacetime ships, inspired by the work of Miguel, the Mexican Genius.

The Alcubierre metric, also known as the Alcubierre drive or Warp Drive, is a speculative mathematical model of a spacetime exhibiting features reminiscent of the fictional "warp drive" which can travel "faster-than-light."

In 1994, the Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre proposed in the Journal of Classical and Quantum Gravity a method of stretching space in a wave which would in theory cause the fabric of space ahead of a spacecraft to contract and the space behind it to expand. The ship would ride this wave inside a region known as a warp bubble of flat space. Since the ship is not moving within this bubble, but carried along as the region itself moves, conventional relativistic effects such as time dilation do not apply in the way they would in the case of a ship moving at high velocity through flat spacetime. Also, this method of travel does not actually involve moving faster than light in a local sense, since a light beam within the bubble would still always move faster than the ship; it is only "faster than light" in the sense that, thanks to the contraction of the space in front of it, the ship could reach its destination faster than a light beam restricted to travelling outside the warp bubble. Thus, the Alcubierre drive does not contradict the conventional claim that relativity forbids a slower-than-light object to accelerate to faster-than-light speeds. However, there are no known methods to create such a warp bubble in a region that does not already contain one, or to leave the bubble once inside it, so the Alcubierre drive remains a theoretical concept at this time.

Using the 3+1 formalism of general relativity, the spacetime is described by a foliation of space-like hypersurfaces of constant coordinate time.

As the energy density is negative, one needs exotic matter to travel faster than the speed of light' (Alcubierre, 1994). The existence of exotic matter is not theoretically ruled out, the Casimir effect and the Accelerating Universe both lends support to the proposed existence of such matter. However, generating enough exotic matter and sustaining it to perform feats such as faster-than-light travel (and also to keep open the 'throat' of a wormhole) is thought to be impractical. Low (1999) has argued that within the context of general relativity, it is impossible to construct a warp drive in the absence of exotic matter. It is generally believed that a consistent theory of quantum gravity will resolve such issues once and for all.

The Alcubierre Metric defines the so-called warp drive spacetime. This is a Lorentzian manifold which, if interpreted in the context of general relativity, exhibits features reminiscent of the warp drive from Star Trek: a warp bubble appears in previously flat spacetime and moves off at effectively superluminal speed. Inhabitants of the bubble feel no inertial effects. The object(s) within the bubble are not moving (locally) faster than light, instead, the space around them shifts so that the object(s) arrives at its destination faster than light would in normal space.

For those familiar with the effects of special relativity, such as Lorentz contraction and time dilation, the Alcubierre metric has some apparently peculiar aspects. In particular, Alcubierre has shown that even when the ship is accelerating, it travels on a free-fall geodesic. In other words, a ship using the warp to accelerate and decelerate is always in free fall, and the crew would experience no accelerational g-forces. Enormous tidal forces would be present near the edges of the flat-space volume because of the large space curvature there, but by suitable specification of the metric, these would be made very small within the volume occupied by the ship (Alcubierre, 1994).

The original warp drive metric, and simple variants of it, happen to have the ADM form which is often used in discussing the initial value formulation of general relativity. This may explain the widespread misconception that this spacetime is a solution of the field equation of general relativity. Metrics in ADM form are adapted to a certain family of inertial observers, but these observers are not really physically distinguished from other such families. Alcubierre interpreted his "warp bubble" in terms of a contraction of "space" ahead of the bubble and an expansion behind. But this interpretation might be misleading (Natario, 2002), since the contraction and expansion actually refers to the relative motion of nearby members of the family of ADM observers.

In general relativity, one often first specifies a plausible distribution of matter and energy, and then finds the geometry of the spacetime associated with it; but it is also possible to run the Einstein field equations in the other direction, first specifying a metric and then finding the energy-momentum tensor associated with it, and this is what Alcubierre did in building his metric. This practice means that the solution can violate various energy conditions and require exotic matter. The need for exotic matter leads to questions about whether it is actually possible to find a way to distribute the matter in an initial spacetime which lacks a "warp bubble" in such a way that the bubble will be created at a later time. Yet another problem is that according to Krasnikov (1998) it would be impossible to generate the bubble without being able to force the exotic matter to move at locally FTL speeds, which would require the existence of tachyons. Some methods have been suggested which would avoid the problem of tachyonic motion, but would probably generate a naked singularity at the front of the bubble.

The Alcubierre metric, also known as the Alcubierre drive or Warp Drive, is a speculative mathematical model of a spacetime exhibiting features reminiscent of the fictional "warp drive" which can travel "faster-than-light."

In 1994, the Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre proposed in the Journal of Classical and Quantum Gravity a method of stretching space in a wave which would in theory cause the fabric of space ahead of a spacecraft to contract and the space behind it to expand. The ship would ride this wave inside a region known as a warp bubble of flat space. Since the ship is not moving within this bubble, but carried along as the region itself moves, conventional relativistic effects such as time dilation do not apply in the way they would in the case of a ship moving at high velocity through flat spacetime. Also, this method of travel does not actually involve moving faster than light in a local sense, since a light beam within the bubble would still always move faster than the ship; it is only "faster than light" in the sense that, thanks to the contraction of the space in front of it, the ship could reach its destination faster than a light beam restricted to travelling outside the warp bubble. Thus, the Alcubierre drive does not contradict the conventional claim that relativity forbids a slower-than-light object to accelerate to faster-than-light speeds. However, there are no known methods to create such a warp bubble in a region that does not already contain one, or to leave the bubble once inside it, so the Alcubierre drive remains a theoretical concept at this time.

Using the 3+1 formalism of general relativity, the spacetime is described by a foliation of space-like hypersurfaces of constant coordinate time.

As the energy density is negative, one needs exotic matter to travel faster than the speed of light' (Alcubierre, 1994). The existence of exotic matter is not theoretically ruled out, the Casimir effect and the Accelerating Universe both lends support to the proposed existence of such matter. However, generating enough exotic matter and sustaining it to perform feats such as faster-than-light travel (and also to keep open the 'throat' of a wormhole) is thought to be impractical. Low (1999) has argued that within the context of general relativity, it is impossible to construct a warp drive in the absence of exotic matter. It is generally believed that a consistent theory of quantum gravity will resolve such issues once and for all.

The Alcubierre Metric defines the so-called warp drive spacetime. This is a Lorentzian manifold which, if interpreted in the context of general relativity, exhibits features reminiscent of the warp drive from Star Trek: a warp bubble appears in previously flat spacetime and moves off at effectively superluminal speed. Inhabitants of the bubble feel no inertial effects. The object(s) within the bubble are not moving (locally) faster than light, instead, the space around them shifts so that the object(s) arrives at its destination faster than light would in normal space.

**Physics of the Alcubierre drive**For those familiar with the effects of special relativity, such as Lorentz contraction and time dilation, the Alcubierre metric has some apparently peculiar aspects. In particular, Alcubierre has shown that even when the ship is accelerating, it travels on a free-fall geodesic. In other words, a ship using the warp to accelerate and decelerate is always in free fall, and the crew would experience no accelerational g-forces. Enormous tidal forces would be present near the edges of the flat-space volume because of the large space curvature there, but by suitable specification of the metric, these would be made very small within the volume occupied by the ship (Alcubierre, 1994).

The original warp drive metric, and simple variants of it, happen to have the ADM form which is often used in discussing the initial value formulation of general relativity. This may explain the widespread misconception that this spacetime is a solution of the field equation of general relativity. Metrics in ADM form are adapted to a certain family of inertial observers, but these observers are not really physically distinguished from other such families. Alcubierre interpreted his "warp bubble" in terms of a contraction of "space" ahead of the bubble and an expansion behind. But this interpretation might be misleading (Natario, 2002), since the contraction and expansion actually refers to the relative motion of nearby members of the family of ADM observers.

In general relativity, one often first specifies a plausible distribution of matter and energy, and then finds the geometry of the spacetime associated with it; but it is also possible to run the Einstein field equations in the other direction, first specifying a metric and then finding the energy-momentum tensor associated with it, and this is what Alcubierre did in building his metric. This practice means that the solution can violate various energy conditions and require exotic matter. The need for exotic matter leads to questions about whether it is actually possible to find a way to distribute the matter in an initial spacetime which lacks a "warp bubble" in such a way that the bubble will be created at a later time. Yet another problem is that according to Krasnikov (1998) it would be impossible to generate the bubble without being able to force the exotic matter to move at locally FTL speeds, which would require the existence of tachyons. Some methods have been suggested which would avoid the problem of tachyonic motion, but would probably generate a naked singularity at the front of the bubble.

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## Re: Quantum Vacuum Flux, The Alcubierre Drive, and Beyond ...

Dvorsky was explaining how physicist Harold White stunned the aeronautics world when he announced that he and his team at NASA had begun work on the development of a faster-than-light warp drive. His proposed design, an ingenious re-imagining of an Alcubierre Drive, may eventually result in an engine that can transport a spacecraft to the nearest star in a matter of weeks — and all without violating Einstein's law of relativity. We contacted White at NASA and asked him to explain how this real life warp drive could actually work.

The idea came to White while he was considering a rather remarkable equation formulated by Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre, from Mexico. In his 1994 paper titled, "The Mexican Warp Drive: Hyper-Fast Travel Within General Relativity," the Mexican suggested a mechanism by which space-time could be "warped" both in front of and behind a spacecraft.

Michio Kaku dubbed Alcubierre's notion a "passport to the universe." It takes advantage of a quirk in the cosmological code that allows for the expansion and contraction of space-time, and could allow for hyper-fast travel between interstellar destinations. Essentially, the empty space behind a starship would be made to expand rapidly, pushing the craft in a forward direction — passengers would perceive it as movement despite the complete lack of acceleration.

White speculates that such a drive could result in "speeds" that could take a spacecraft to Alpha Centauri in a mere two weeks — even though the system is 4.3 light-years away.

In terms of the engine's mechanics, a spheroid object would be placed between two regions of space-time (one expanding and one contracting). A "warp bubble" would then be generated that moves space-time around the object, effectively repositioning it — the end result being faster-than-light travel without the spheroid (or spacecraft) having to move with respect to its local frame of reference.

"Remember, nothing locally exceeds the speed of light, but space can expand and contract at any speed," White told io9. "However, space-time is really stiff, so to create the expansion and contraction effect in a useful manner in order for us to reach interstellar destinations in reasonable time periods would require a lot of energy."

And indeed, early assessments published in the ensuing scientific literature suggested horrific amounts of energy — basically equal to the mass-energy of the planet Jupiter (what is 1.9 × 1027 kilograms or 317 Earth masses). As a result, the idea was brushed aside as being far too impractical. Even though nature allowed for a warp drive, it looked like we would never be able to build one ourselves.

"However," said White, "based on the analysis I did the last 18 months, there may be hope." The key, says White, may be in altering the geometry of the warp drive itself.

The idea came to White while he was considering a rather remarkable equation formulated by Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre, from Mexico. In his 1994 paper titled, "The Mexican Warp Drive: Hyper-Fast Travel Within General Relativity," the Mexican suggested a mechanism by which space-time could be "warped" both in front of and behind a spacecraft.

Michio Kaku dubbed Alcubierre's notion a "passport to the universe." It takes advantage of a quirk in the cosmological code that allows for the expansion and contraction of space-time, and could allow for hyper-fast travel between interstellar destinations. Essentially, the empty space behind a starship would be made to expand rapidly, pushing the craft in a forward direction — passengers would perceive it as movement despite the complete lack of acceleration.

White speculates that such a drive could result in "speeds" that could take a spacecraft to Alpha Centauri in a mere two weeks — even though the system is 4.3 light-years away.

*How NASA might build*In terms of the engine's mechanics, a spheroid object would be placed between two regions of space-time (one expanding and one contracting). A "warp bubble" would then be generated that moves space-time around the object, effectively repositioning it — the end result being faster-than-light travel without the spheroid (or spacecraft) having to move with respect to its local frame of reference.

"Remember, nothing locally exceeds the speed of light, but space can expand and contract at any speed," White told io9. "However, space-time is really stiff, so to create the expansion and contraction effect in a useful manner in order for us to reach interstellar destinations in reasonable time periods would require a lot of energy."

And indeed, early assessments published in the ensuing scientific literature suggested horrific amounts of energy — basically equal to the mass-energy of the planet Jupiter (what is 1.9 × 1027 kilograms or 317 Earth masses). As a result, the idea was brushed aside as being far too impractical. Even though nature allowed for a warp drive, it looked like we would never be able to build one ourselves.

"However," said White, "based on the analysis I did the last 18 months, there may be hope." The key, says White, may be in altering the geometry of the warp drive itself.

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